La ricerca scientifica

La ricerca scientifica in ambito Feldenkrais è ancora poco sviluppata, nonostante negli ultimi anni si sia registrato un incoraggiante progresso.
Raccogliere e sistematizzare quanto è stato pubblicato finora sulle riviste scientifiche è un servizio che rendiamo a tutta la comunità di Insegnanti e a quanti siano interessati a una maggiore e migliore diffusione del Metodo Feldenkrais. Specificatamente il mondo sanitario necessita di fondamenti scientifici per il riconoscimento di pratiche (anche) non convenzionali applicate in questo contesto.
In questa sezione del sito riporteremo e periodicamente aggiorneremo gli articoli di natura scientifica che riguardano il Metodo. Ricordiamo che molti altri interessanti articoli possono essere reperiti nelle riviste di molte associazioni Feldenkrais internazionali.

NOTE METODOLOGICHE

É bene chiarire in che modo li abbiamo raccolti, suddivisi e come verranno aggiornati.
La fonte bibliografica usata per la ricerca è principalmente il database Medline, accesibile anche al grande pubblico attraverso Pubmed. Le parole chiave per recuperare i lavori sono state: “Feldenkrais” o “Feldenkrais Method” o “Awareness through Movement/Functional integration”. Abbiamo suddiviso il materiale in macro-aree, ordinate per numero di studi: Equilibrio/camminata; Dolore acuto e dolore cronico; Arti performative; Demenza senile; Parkinson, ecc.
Per ciascuno studio vi è il link per collegarsi alla pagina web che permette di visualizzare l’abstract e, laddove possibile, di accedere al testo completo, qualora la rivista lo permetta. É inoltre specificato di che tipo di studio si tratti. A questo proposito abbiamo fatto una distinzione tra studi clinici veri e propri, studi osservazionali, revisioni sistematiche o review generali.
L’obiettivo della sperimentazione clinica è ottenere stime di efficacia valide e generalizzabili. I metodi utilizzati nella ricerca clinica possono essere distinti in due grandi gruppi:
-studi sperimentali, che comprendono gli studi clinici controllati randomizzati (RCT, dall’inglese Randomised Controlled Trial) o non randomizzati (CT) utilizzati nella valutazione dell’efficacia
-studi osservazionali, che possono essere descrittivi o analitici
Uno CT è uno studio sperimentale pianificato per confrontare il gruppo sottoposto al trattamento e il gruppo di controllo. Quando la formazione dei gruppi è affidata al caso si parla di randomizzazione (RCT).
Negli studi osservazionali, al contrario delle sperimentazioni cliniche, lo sperimentatore osserva i soggetti ed effettua misurazioni, senza intervenire attivamente nell’esperimento.
Le revisioni sistematiche sono pubblicazioni particolari che analizzano e confrontano tutti gli studi che riguardano uno stesso argomento e ne riportano le conclusioni.
Infine le review sono pubblicazioni che presentano aspetti più generali e forniscono un punto di vista ampio e complessivo, una sorta di stato dell’arte su un determinato argomento e per tale motivo hanno un carattere più divulgativo.

Bibliografia

Equilibrio e camminata

A novel sensorimotor movement and walking intervention to improve balance and gait in women.
Cook SB, LaRoche DP, Swartz EE, Hammond PR, King MA.
Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2014 Nov;20(4):311-6. RCT

Effect of Feldenkrais exercises on dual task postural control in older adults.
Ullmann G, Williams HG.
Clin Interv Aging. 2014 Jul 4;9:1039-42. No abstract available.

Effects of Feldenkrais exercises on balance, mobility, balance confidence, and gait performance in community-dwelling adults age 65 and older.
Ullmann G, Williams HG, Hussey J, Durstine JL, McClenaghan BA.
J Altern Complement Med. 2010 Jan;16(1):97-105. RCT

Feldenkrais Method balance classes are based on principles of motor learning and postural control retraining: a qualitative research study.
Connors KA, Galea MP, Said CM, Remedios LJ.
Physiotherapy. 2010 Dec;96(4):324-36. OSS

Getting Grounded Gracefully: effectiveness and acceptability of Feldenkrais in improving balance.
Vrantsidis F, Hill KD, Moore K, Webb R, Hunt S, Dowson L.
J Aging Phys Act. 2009 Jan;17(1):57-76. RCT

Feldenkrais method balance classes improve balance in older adults: a controlled trial.
Connors KA, Galea MP, Said CM.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011; 2011:873672. CT

Dolore acuto e cronico

Effects of Feldenkrais method on chronic neck/scapular pain in people with visual impairment: a randomized controlled trial with one-year follow-up.
Lundqvist LO, Zetterlund C, Richter HO.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014 Sep;95(9):1656-61. RCT

Feldenkrais method empowers adults with chronic back pain.
Pugh JD, Williams AM.
Holist Nurs Pract. 2014 May-Jun;28(3):171-83. OSS

Self-reported interoceptive awareness in primary care patients with past or current low back pain.
Mehling WE, Daubenmier J, Price CJ, Acree M, Bartmess E, Stewart AL.
J Pain Res. 2013 May 28;6:403-18. OSS

Manipulative therapy (Feldenkrais, massage, chiropractic manipulation) for neck pain.

Plastaras C, Schran S, Kim N, Darr D, Chen MS.
Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2013 Jul;15(7):339. Review

Moving with ease: feldenkrais method classes for people with osteoarthritis.
Webb R, Cofré Lizama LE, Galea MP.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:479142. OSS

Feldenkrais® therapy as group treatment for chronic pain–a qualitative evaluation.
Ohman A, Aström L, Malmgren-Olsson EB.
J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2011 Apr;15(2):153-61. C

Complementary and alternative treatment for neck pain: chiropractic, acupuncture, TENS, massage, yoga, Tai Chi, and Feldenkrais.
Plastaras CT, Schran S, Kim N, Sorosky S, Darr D, Chen MS, Lansky R.
Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2011 Aug;22(3):521-37, ix. Review.

A workplace intervention aimed at increasing awareness in nursing personnel performing manual handling activities
Scorpiniti A, Lorusso A, L’Abbate N.
G Ital Med Lav Ergon. 2007 Jul-Sep;29(3 Suppl):857-8. Italian. CT

Body awareness therapy for patients with fibromyalgia and chronic pain.
Gard G.
Disabil Rehabil. 2005 Jun 17;27(12):725-8. Review.

Effective physical treatment for chronic low back pain.
Maher CG.
Orthop Clin North Am. 2004 Jan;35(1):57-64. Review.

A comparison between three physiotherapy approaches with regard to health-related factors in patients with non-specific musculoskeletal disorders.
Malmgren-Olsson EB, Bränholm IB.
Disabil Rehabil. 2002 Apr 15;24(6):308-17. CT

Acute back pain. Treatment by the application of Feldenkrais principles.
Lake B.
Aust Fam Physician. 1985 Nov;14(11):1175-8. No abstract available. Review

Arti performative

Feldenkrais Method, Alexander Technique, and yoga–body awareness therapy in the performing arts.
Schlinger M.
Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2006 Nov;17(4):865-75. Review.

Nontraditional tools helpful in the treatment of certain types of voice disturbances.
Emerich KA.
Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2003 Jun;11(3):149-53. Review.

Physical and mental practices of music students as they relate to the occurrence of music-related injuries.
Hagglund KL, Jacobs K.
Work. 1996;6(1):11-24.

Playing with the entire self: the Feldenkrais method and musicians.
Nelson SH.
Semin Neurol. 1989 Jun;9(2):97-104. Review. No abstract available.

Demenza senile

The Feldenkrais Method(®) can enhance cognitive function in independent living older adults: A case-series.

Ullmann G1, Williams HG2. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2016 Jul;20(3):512-7.

Preventing Loss of Independence through Exercise (PLIÉ): qualitative analysis of a clinical trial in older adults with dementia.
Wu E, Barnes DE, Ackerman SL, Lee J, Chesney M, Mehling WE.
Aging Ment Health. 2015;19(4):353-62. CT

Individuals with dementia learn new habits and are empowered through the Feldenkrais Method.
Joyce Ann.
Alzheimer’s Care Quarterly. 2006 7(4), 278-286. Review

Parkinson

Feldenkrais method-based exercise improves quality of life in individuals with Parkinson’s disease: a controlled, randomized clinical trial.
Teixeira-Machado L, Araújo FM, Cunha FA, Menezes M, Menezes T, Melo DeSantana J.
Altern Ther Health Med. 2015 Jan-Feb;21(1):8-14. RCT

Disturbi alimentari

Therapeutic effects of the Feldenkrais method “awareness through movement” in patients with eating disorders
Laumer U, Bauer M, Fichter M, Milz H.
Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol. 1997 May;47(5):170-80. German. CT

Sclerosi multipla

Complementary and alternative therapies for treating multiple sclerosis symptoms: a systematic review.
Huntley A, Ernst E.
Complement Ther Med. 2000 Jun;8(2):97-105. Review.

A controlled investigation of bodywork in multiple sclerosis.
Johnson SK, Frederick J, Kaufman M, Mountjoy B.
J Altern Complement Med. 1999 Jun;5(3):237-43. RCT

Depressione

Can Feldenkrais exercises ameliorate subclinical depressive symptoms in older adults? A pilot study.
Ullmann G, Williams HG.
J S C Med Assoc. 2011;107 Suppl:7-10. No abstract available. OSS

Miscellanea

The Relationship between Mental and Somatic Practices and Wisdom.

Williams PB, Mangelsdorf HH, Kontra C, Nusbaum HC, Hoeckner B.

PLoS One. 2016 Feb 18;11(2):e0149369.

Changes in neural resting state activity in primary and higher-order motor areas induced by a short sensorimotor intervention based on the Feldenkrais method.
Verrel J, Almagor E, Schumann F, Lindenberger U, Kühn S.
Front Hum Neurosci. 2015 Apr 28;9:232. CT

United States Guild Certified Feldenkrais Teachers®: a survey of characteristics and practice patterns.
Buchanan PA, Nelsen NL, Geletta S.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014 Jul 2;14:217.

Does the Feldenkrais Method make a difference? An investigation into the use of outcome measurement tools for evaluating changes in clients.
Connors KA, Pile C, Nichols ME.
J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2011 Oct;15(4):446-52.

A preliminary survey of the practice patterns of United States Guild Certified Feldenkrais Practitioners CM.
Buchanan PA.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2010 Apr 1;10:12.
Alternative methods of conservative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis.
Zarzycka M, Rozek K, Zarzycki M.
Ortop Traumatol Rehabil. 2009 Sep-Oct;11(5):396-412. Review. English, Polish.
Complementary medicine in the primary care setting: Results of a survey of gender and cultural patterns in Israel.
Ben-Arye E, Karkabi S, Shapira C, Schiff E, Lavie O, Keshet Y.
Gend Med. 2009 Jul;6(2):384-97. OSS

Classification of complementary and alternative medical practices: Family physicians’ ratings of effectiveness.
Fries CJ.
Can Fam Physician. 2008 Nov;54(11):1570-1. OSS

Complementary and alternative therapies for cerebral palsy.
Liptak GS.
Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev. 2005;11(2):156-63. Review.

Utilization and perceived effectiveness of complementary and alternative medicine in patients with dystonia.
Junker J, Oberwittler C, Jackson D, Berger K.
Mov Disord. 2004 Feb;19(2):158-61.

Mood alterations in mindful versus aerobic exercise modes.
Netz Y, Lidor R.
J Psychol. 2003 Sep;137(5):405-19.

Feldenkrais sensory imagery and forward reach.
Dunn PA, Rogers DK.
Percept Mot Skills. 2000 Dec;91(3 Pt 1):755-7. CT

David Ben-Gurion, Moshe Feldenkrais and Raymond Arthur Dart.
Ohry A, Tsafrir J.
Isr Med Assoc J. 2000 Jan;2(1):66-7. No abstract available.

Feldenkrais concern.
Mayo M, Fitch S, Hart L, Yabsley C.
Aust J Physiother. 1998;44(2):143. No abstract available.

The effects of a Feldenkrais program and relaxation procedures on hamstring length.
James M, Kolt G, McConville J, Bate P.
Aust J Physiother. 1998;44(1):49-54.

Facilitating Cervical Flexion Using a Feldenkrais Method: Awareness through Movement.
Ruth S, Kegerreis S.
J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1992;16(1):25-9. OSS

The Feldenkrais method in ambulatory geriatric nursing and nursing of the sick.
Elsässer MB.
Dtsch Krankenpflegez. 1991 Aug;44(8):538-41. German. No abstract available.

Neuromuscular relaxation and CCMDP. The Zilgrei and Feldenkrais methods.
Santoro F, Maiorana C, Faccin C.
Dent Cadmos. 1989 Oct 31;57(16):84-7. Italian.

Feldenkrais versus conventional exercises for the elderly.
Gutman GM, Herbert CP, Brown SR.
J Gerontol. 1977 Sep;32(5):562-72. CT

Review

Mindful movement and skilled attention.
Clark D, Schumann F, Mostofsky SH.
Front Hum Neurosci. 2015 Jun 29;9:297.

Bodywork as systemic and inter-enactive competence: participatory process management in Feldenkrais® Method and Zen Shiatsu.
Kimmel M, Irran C, Luger MA.
Front Psychol. 2015 Jan 12;5:1424.

Movement-based embodied contemplative practices: definitions and paradigms.
Schmalzl L, Crane-Godreau MA, Payne P.
Front Hum Neurosci. 2014 Apr 14;8:205.

Body Awareness: a phenomenological inquiry into the common ground of mind-body therapies.
Mehling WE, Wrubel J, Daubenmier JJ, Price CJ, Kerr CE, Silow T, Gopisetty V, Stewart AL.
Philos Ethics Humanit Med. 2011 Apr 7;6:6.

Qi Gong exercises and Feldenkrais method from the perspective of Gestalt concept and humanistic psychology.
Posadzki P, Stöckl A, Mucha D.
J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2010 Jul;14(3):227-33. Review.

Bias control in trials of bodywork: a review of methodological issues.
Mehling WE, DiBlasi Z, Hecht F.
J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Apr;11(2):333-42. Review.

Complementary and alternative medicine: what’s it all about?
Barrett B.
WMJ. 2001;100(7):20-6. Review.

Healing and the mind/body arts: massage, acupuncture, yoga, t’ai chi, and Feldenkrais.
Wanning T.
AAOHN J. 1993 Jul;41(7):349-51.

Comments on “the Feldenkrais Method: a dynamic approach to changing motor behavior”.
Ives JC.
Res Q Exerc Sport. 2003 Jun;74(2):116-23; discussion 124-6. Review.

The Feldenkrais method: awareness through movement.
Apel U.
WHO Reg Publ Eur Ser. 1992;44:324-7. No abstract available.

The Feldenkrais Method® in rehabilitation: a review.
Ives JC, Shelley GA.
Work. 1998;11(1):75-90.

The Feldenkrais method.
Pfeffer M.
Dtsch Krankenpflegez. 1993 Mar;46(3):167-9. German. No abstract available.

Gestalt synergy.
Carpentier L.
Sante Ment Que. 1980;5(1):92-103. French.

Alexander technique and Feldenkrais method: a critical overview.
Jain S, Janssen K, DeCelle S.
Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2004 Nov;15(4):811-25, vi. Review.

The Feldenkrais Method: a dynamic approach to changing motor behavior.
Buchanan PA, Ulrich BD.
Res Q Exerc Sport. 2001 Dec;72(4):315-23. Review.

Revisioni Sistematiche

Review of the Australian Government Rebate on Natural Therapies for Private Health Insurance
Chris Baggoley
Australian Government Department of Health © Commonwealth of Australia 2015.
The effectiveness of the feldenkrais method: a systematic review of the evidence.
Hillier S, Worley A.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:752160.

The Feldenkrais method: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials
Ernst E, Canter PH.
Physikalische Medizin Rheabilitationsmedizin Kurortmedizin. 2005;

Apprendimento e performance sportive

Percept Mot Skills. 2016 Aug;123(1):258-76.

Attentional Focus in Motor Learning, the Feldenkrais Method, and Mindful Movement.

Mattes J1.